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"Job hunting" is the act of looking for employment, possibly due to unemployment. It is also known as job seeking. The immediate goal of job seeking is usually to obtain a job interview with an employer which may lead to getting hired. The job hunter or seeker typically first looks for job vacancies or employment opportunities. Common methods of job hunting are:


A worker very interested in work activity is likely to be better than an indifferent worker or one who loathes the job. A job seeker uncertain about interests could maybe disagree with the Princeton Review Career Quiz. Goaded by disagreement, the job seeker may assess small (and maybe large) personal triumphs which were very engaging before preparing a résumé. Although this list isn't easy to make, personal accomplishments indicate work activity which fascinates, and can also furnish a good starting point toward a functional résumé.


One can also go and hand out résumés or Curriculum Vitae to prospective employers. Another recommended method of job hunting is to use cold calling to companies that one desires to work for and inquire to whether there are any job vacancies.

After finding a desirable job, they would then apply for the job by responding to the advertisement. This may mean emailing or mailing in a hard copy of your résumé to a prospective employer. There is no one correct way to write a résumé but it is generally recommended that it be brief, organized and concise. With certain occupations, such as graphic design or writing portfolios of a job seeker's previous work are essential and are evaluated as much, if not more than the person's résumé.

Once an employer has received your résumé, they will make a short list of potential employees to be interviewed based on the resume and any other information contributed. During the interview process, interviewers generally look for persons who they believe will be best for the job and work environment. The interview may occur in several rounds until the interviewer is satisfied and offers the job to the applicant of their choice.



A cover letter or covering letter is a letter of introduction attached to, or accompanying another document such as a résumé or curriculum vitae. A successful cover letter results in the résumé being considered, rather than discarded.


A cover letter is the job seeker's introduction to the employer or recruiter. It can also be a marketing device. It highlights a few specific points in the job seeker's experience and skills that match or exceed the requirements of the job. It should be written to address the employer or recruiter's concerns. For example, "My experience in (whatever is needed) can help you with (whatever is needed)," would be preferable to "Your job interests me." Additionally, the requirement of a cover letter for employment purposes can also be used to weed out potential candidates who lack the necessary interest in the position. Many individuals, who are not entirely interested in the specific position, are likely to balk at the idea of drafting an individualized cover letter, thus leaving the employer with a pool of only the most interested candidates.



The introduction to a cover letter should be brief and to the point, but not rushed. The writer should address the employer by name, and make clear what position they want to apply

 for, and why.


The body of the cover letter gives specific reasons for why the job seeker would be of value to the employer. This includes skills, qualifications, and past experience. The cover letter should be targeted to a specific position and company. It should focus on fulfilling the needs of the employer.


A good closing is critical. Although some authors recommend ending a cover letter with a statement such as, "I will call your office in the next week to schedule an appointment."[1], others find this pushy[2]. They prefer a more deferential approach, such as, "I think we could both benefit from meeting to talk about this opportunity in more detail. I would like to follow up within the next week to discuss your thoughts. In the meantime, please do not hesitate to call me at XXXX with any questions. Thank you for your time and consideration." Many believe that the latter approach expresses interest but avoids telling the employer what the process should be.


A résumé or curriculum vitć (CV) (from Latin "the course of one's life or career") is a document containing a summary or listing of relevant job experience and education, usually for the purpose of obtaining an interview when seeking employment. Often the résumé or CV is the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker, and therefore a large amount of importance is often ascribed to it.

Traditionally, résumés have been, like careers themselves, oriented towards what a person has accomplished thus far. In most contemporary career consulting the trend is to fashion the document towards what that person can accomplish in a particular job. This is sometimes called a 'targeted résumé'.

The word résumé is used especially in the United States and in English Canada; the Latin term curriculum vitć (often abbreviated CV) is instead used in the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, French Canada and some Commonwealth countries, as well as in the academic fields in North America, and in many languages other than English. In some regions (such as Australia and India) CV and résumé are used interchangeably.

In American English usage, a CV is a longer document than a résumé, and will include a comprehensive listing of professional history including every term of employment, academic credential, publication, contribution or significant achievement. In certain professions, it may even include samples of the person's work and may run to many pages. In contrast, a résumé is a summary typically limited to one or two pages highlighting only those experiences and credentials that the author considers most relevant to the desired position. CVs are the preferred recruiting tool for academic and medical professions while résumés are generally preferred for business employment.

In many contexts, a résumé is short (usually one or two pages), and therefore contains only experience directly relevant to a particular position. Many résumés use precise keywords that the potential new employers are looking for, are self-aggrandizing, and contain many action words.

Traditionally, résumés have rarely been more than two pages, as potential employers typically did not devote much time to reading résumé details for each applicant. However, employers are changing their views regarding acceptable résumé length. Since increasing numbers of job seekers and employers are using Internet-based job search engines to find and fill employment positions, longer résumés are needed for applicants to differentiate and distinguish themselves. Since the late 1990s, employers have been more accepting of résumés that are longer than two pages. Many professional résumé writers and human resources professionals believe that a résumé should be long enough so that it provides a concise, adequate, and accurate description of an applicant's employment history and skills.

It is important to note that several types of résumés, such as résumés for medical professionals, professors, and artists, may be comparatively longer. For example, an artist's résumé may run longer as it will contain a list of solo and group exhibitions (and will typically exclude any non-art-related employment), which may be more or less extensive. Sample Electronics Technology Resume



Job Interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an employer for prospective employment in their company, organization, or firm.


A job interview typically precedes the hiring decision, and is used to evaluate the candidate. Interviews are usually preceded by the evaluation of supplied résumés, selecting a small number of candidates who seem to be the most desirable (shortlisting). A company seeking to fill a single position will typically interview a handful of candidates - perhaps as many as ten if the level of application has been high. While job interviews are considered to be one of the most useful tools for evaluating potential employees, they also demand significant resources from the employer and have been demonstrated to be notoriously unreliable in identifying the optimal person for the job.

Multiple rounds of job interviews may be used where there are many candidates or the job is particularly challenging or desirable; earlier rounds may involve fewer staff from the employers and will typically be much shorter and less in-depth. A common intitial interview form is the phone interview, a job interview conducted over the telephone. This is especially common when the candidates do not live near the employer and has the advantage of keeping costs low for both sides.

Once all candidates have had job interviews, the employer typically selects the most desirable candidate and begins the negotiation of a job offer.


A typical job interview has a single candidate meeting with between one and three persons representing the employer; the potential supervisor of the employee is usually involved in the interview process. A larger interview panel will often have a specialized human resources worker. The meeting can be as short as 15 minutes; job interviews usually last less than two hours. The bulk of the job interview will be the interviewers asking the candidate questions about their history, personality, work style and other relevant factors to the job. The candidate will usually be given a chance to ask any questions at the end of the interview. The primary purpose is to assess the candidate's suitability for the job, although the candidate will also be assessing the corporate culture and demands of the job on offer.

Lower paid and lower skilled positions tend to have much simpler job interviews than more prestigious positions; a lawyer's job interview will be much more demanding than that of a retail cashier. Most job interviews are formal; the larger the firm, the more formal and structured the interview will tend to be. Candidates generally dress slightly better than they will be expected to wear to work, with a suit being appropriate for a white-collar job interview, but jeans being appropriate for an interview as a plumber.

Additionally, some professions have specific types of job interviews; for performing artists, this is an audition where the emphasis is placed on the performance ability of the candidate.

In many companies Assessment Days are increasingly being used, particularly for graduate positions, which may include analysis tasks, group activities, presentation exercises and Psychometric testing.

Behavioral Interview

A common type of job interview in the modern workplace is the behavioral interview or behavioral event interview. In this sort of interview, the interviewers tend to ask questions about general situations, with the candidate asked to describe how they did or would handle a specific problem. A bad hiring decision nowadays can be immensely expensive for an organisation – cost of the hire, training costs, severance pay, loss of productivity, impact on morale, cost of re-hiring, etc. (Gallup international place the cost of a bad hire as being 3.2 times the individual's salary). Structured selection techniques have a better track record of identifying the soundest candidate than the old-style 'biographical' interview. Typical behavioural interview questions:

  • "Describe a time you had to work with someone you didn't like."
  • "Tell me about a time when you had to stick by a decision you had made, even though it made you very unpopular."
  • "How would you handle a boss you suspected of performing unethical actions?"
  • "Would you describe yourself as an innovative person? Give us an example of something particularly innovative that you have done that made a difference in the workplace."
  • "What was the last time you were late with a project?"

The goal of the interview is to assess the candidate's ability to respond to the sorts of situations that the job may present them with. The questions asked will therefore be based on the job description, the performance indicators, the skills/personal qualities required and the interviewer's knowledge of operating in the role. Questioning will either be hypothetical (‘how would you deal with situation X?’) or based on historical examples from your current or previous experience (‘when situation X arose, how did you deal with it?’). Either way, the interviewer is interested in (a) the thought process used and (b) the values of the candidate and the outcome of the situation.

Stress Interview

Stress interviews are still in common use. One type of stress interview is where the employer uses a succession of interviewers (one at a time or en masse) whose mission is to intimidate the candidate and keep him/her off-balance. The ostensible purpose of this interview: to find out how the candidate handles stress. Stress interviews might involve testing applicant's behavior in a busy environment. Questions about handling work overload, dealing with multiple projects and handling conflict are typical.

Another type of stress interview may involve only a single interviewer who behaves in an uninterested or hostile style. For example, the interviewer may not give eye contact, may roll their eyes or sigh at the candidate's answers, interrupt, turn his back, take phone calls during the interview, and ask questions in a demeaning or challenging style. The goal is to assess how the interviewee handles pressure or to purposely evoke emotional responses. This technique was also used in research protocols studying Stress and Type A (coronary-prone) Behavior because it would evoke hostility and even changes in blood pressure and heart-rate in study subjects. The key to success for the candidate is to de-personalise the process. The interviewer is acting a role, deliberately and calculatedly trying to 'rattle the cage.' Once the candidate realizes that there is nothing personal behind the interviewer's approach, it is easier to handle the questions with aplomb.

Example stress interview questions:

  • Sticky situation: "If you caught a colleague cheating on his expenses, what would you do?"
  • Putting you on the spot: "How do you feel this interview is going?"
  • Popping the balloon: "(deep sigh) Well, if that's the best answer you can give ... (shakes head) Okay, what about this one ...?"
  • Oddball question: "What would you change about the design of the hockey stick?"
  • Doubting your veracity: "I don't feel like we're getting to the heart of the matter here. Start again - tell me what really makes you tick."

Candidates may also be asked to deliver a presentation as part of the selection process. The 'Platform Test' method involves having the candidate make a presentation to both the selection panel and their competitors for the job. This is obviously highly stressful and is therefore useful as a predictor of how the candidate will perform under similar circumstances on the job. Academic, Training, Airline, Legal and Teaching selection processes frequently involve presentations of this sort.


In many countries including most of North America, Western Europe and Australasia, employment equity laws forbid discrimination based on a number of classes, such as race, gender, age, and marital status. Asking questions about these protected areas in a job interview is generally considered discriminatory, and constitutes an illegal hiring practice. Asking questions that touch on these areas, such as "Are you willing to travel/relocate?" (possibly affected by marital status) or "When did you graduate from school?" (indicative of age) is still usually possible.

There is extant data which puts in question the value of Job Interviews as a tool for selecting employees. Where the aim of a job interview is ostensibily to choose a candidate who will perform well in the job role, other methods of selection provide greater predictive power and often lower costs. Furthermore, given the unstructured approach of most interviews they often have almost no useful predictive power of employee success.


it's rare to receive an offer on the spot, but it does happen occasionally. If the feedback is consistently positive over the course of the day, you may get a job offer at the end of the interview. If that happens, don't make a hasty decision. Ask for time to think about it.

If you don't get an offer, be sure to immediately send a brief thank you note to every person you spoke with. Some companies make hiring decisions in a matter of days, but many can take weeks to make their final choice.

Be patient, be flexible and be ready for an offer or an invitation for yet another interview.